What are the types of heavy equipment dump trucks? Dump trucks come in a variety of shapes and sizes, as you’ll see here. They are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. From monster heavy haul Cat mining trucks to “smaller” everyday conventional dump trucks, there’s something for everyone.

A dump truck, also known as a dumper truck or tipper truck, is a construction vehicle that transports dumps such as sand, gravel, or demolition trash. An open-box bed on a dump truck is hinged at the back and fitted with hydraulic rams to elevate the front, allowing the material in the bed to be dropped (“dumped”) on the ground behind the truck at the delivery site.

Dump trucks come in a variety of sizes and configurations to suit almost any need. The numerous types of heavy equipment dump trucks are listed below.


A typical dump truck consists of a vehicle chassis with a dump body attached to it. The back of the bed is hinged at the back of the truck, and it is raised by a vertical hydraulic ram located under the front of the body or a horizontal hydraulic ram and lever arrangement between the frame rails.

The tailgate can either swing up on top hinges (and occasionally also fold down on lower hinges) or be designed in the “High Lift Tailgate” type, where pneumatic rams lift the gate open and up above the dump body.

Types of Heavy Equipment Dump Truck


A semi end dump is a tractor-trailer combination with the hydraulic hoist built within the trailer. A typical semi end dump in the United States features a three-axle tractor pulling a two-axle trailer with dual tires.

A semi-end dump’s main advantage is its big payload. When raised in the dumping position, they are quite unstable, which limits their use in many situations where the dumping spot is uneven or off level.


A transfer dump truck is a dump truck that tows a trailer with a moveable cargo container that may be filled with construction aggregate, gravel, sand, asphalt, klinkers, snow, wood chips, triple mix, and other materials.

An electric motor, a pneumatic motor, or a hydraulic line power the trailer’s second aggregate container (“B” box). It rides on rails from the trailer’s frame into the empty primary dump container (“A” box) on little wheels. This increases cargo capacity while maintaining the regular dump truck’s mobility. Due to the unique weight constraints on roadways in the western United States, transfer dump trucks are commonly encountered.


A transfer dump is extremely similar to a truck and pup. It is made up of a dump truck towing a dump trailer. Unlike the transfer, the pup trailer has its own hydraulic ram and can self-unload.


A straight dump truck with a trailing axle, a liftable, load-bearing axle rated up to 13,000 pounds, is known as a super dump. The trailing axle, which follows the rear tandem 11 to 13 feet behind, stretches the outer “bridge” measurement, which is the distance between the first and last axles, to the maximum overall length allowed.

The gross weight allowed under the federal bridge formula, which establishes limits for vehicle size and weight, is increased as a result of this. Superdumps can be rated as high as 80,000 pounds, depending on the truck length and axle layout. GVW and carry a payload of 26 short tons.

The trailing axle toggles up off the road surface on two hydraulic arms when the truck is empty or ready to dump, clearing the back of the vehicle.


A semi bottom dump, also known as a belly dump, is a three-axle tractor towing a two-axle trailer with a clamshell dump gate in the trailer’s belly.

The ability to arrange material in a windrow, or a linear heap, is a fundamental advantage of a semi bottom dump. In addition, unlike the double and triple trailer combinations discussed below, a semi bottom dump can be maneuvered in reverse.

These trailers may be of the windrow kind, as shown in the illustration, or of the cross spread style, with the gate opening front to back rather than left to right. The cereal grains will be dispersed fairly and evenly across the width of the trailer with the cross spread type gate.

The windrow style gate, on the other hand, leaves a pile in the centre. On the other hand, the cross spread type gate is prone to jamming and may not perform well with coarse materials.

Types of Heavy Equipment Dump Truck


A two-axle tractor pulls one single-axle semi-trailer and another full trailer in a double or triple bottom dump (or two full trailers in the case of triples). The driver of these dump trucks can place material in windrows without exiting the cab or halting the truck.

The biggest disadvantage is that backing double and triple units is tough.


A side dump truck (SDT) is made up of a three-axle tractor pulling a two-axle semi-trailer. The dump body is tilted on its side by hydraulic rams, spilling the material to the trailer’s left or right sides. The side dump’s main advantages are that it allows for faster unloading and can handle more weight.

In addition, unlike semi-end dumps, which are prone to tipping over, it is nearly impervious to disturbance or tipping over while dumping. A side dump trailer, on the other hand, is quite likely to flip over if dumping is halted too soon.

When dropping loose debris or cobble-sized stone, the side dump can also become stuck if the pile grows large enough to cover the trailer’s wheels.

By dumping their cargoes further to the side of the truck, trailers that dump at the suitable angle, such as 50 degrees, avoid the problem of the dumped load fouling the path of the trailer wheels, providing enough clearance to walk between the dumped load and the trailer.


Many winter service vehicles are built on dump trucks, allowing for the insertion of ballast to weigh the truck down or the storage of sodium or calcium chloride salts for spreading over ice and snow. Plowing is a dangerous job that necessitates the use of heavy-duty equipment.


A Roll-off has a hoist and a subframe, but no one, and it transports containers that can be removed. The container is loaded on the ground, then winched and cabled onto the rear of the truck. After the truck has been dumped, the empty container is taken and positioned in order to be loaded or stored.

The hoist is raised, and the container is slid down the subframe, landing on the ground at the back. The back of the container includes rollers, and it may be moved forward or back until the front is lowered onto the ground.

The containers are mostly open-topped crates for rubble and construction debris, but garbage compactor containers are also transported. A contemporary hook-lift system serves the same job, but instead of using a cable and hoist, it uses a boom to lift/lower and dump the container.


Off-highway dump trucks are large construction vehicles that look nothing like highway dump trucks. Off-road mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs require larger off-highway dump trucks.

A stiff frame and an articulating frame are the two main types. The mining sector, as well as the manufacturers who make these machines, do not use the term “dump” truck. This strictly off-road vehicle is better known in the United States as a “haul truck.”


In huge surface mines and quarries, haul vehicles are used. They have a sturdy frame and traditional steering with rear-wheel drive. The 450 metric ton BelAZ 75710 is the largest ever production haul truck, followed by the Liebherr T 282B, Bucyrus MT6300AC, and Caterpillar 797F, all of which have payload capacities of up to 400 short tons.

Diesel-electric powertrains are used in most heavy haul trucks, with the diesel engine driving an AC alternator or DC generator that feeds electric power to electric motors at each rear wheel. For its size, the Caterpillar 797 is unique in that it uses a Diesel engine to power a mechanical powertrain, which is used in most road-going vehicles and intermediate-size haul trucks.

SANY, XCMG, Hitachi, Komatsu, DAC, Terex, and BelAZ are some of the other significant haul truck manufacturers.


An articulated dumper is an off-road dump vehicle with all-wheel drive. It includes a hinge connecting the cab and the dump box, but unlike a semi-trailer truck, the power unit is a permanent fixture rather than a separate vehicle.

Instead of using a rack and pinion steering system on the front axle like a traditional dump truck, hydraulic cylinders pivot the entire tractor in relation to the trailer.

The trailer’s wheels follow the same route as the front wheels while steered in this manner. It is very adaptive to tough terrain because to all-wheel drive and a low center of gravity. Volvo CE, Terex, John Deere, and Caterpillar are among the leading manufacturers.

Source : Truxnow

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